This paper, prepared by the CGIAR Systemwide Program on Participatory Research and Gender Analysis, analyzes the four constraining factors (listed below) in the context of their implications to agricultural research and development. 1. Limitations in the dominant approaches to poverty analysis 2. Deficiencies in data on gender and poverty 3. Stereotypes which narrow the perspective through which poverty is conceptualized and addressed 4. The organization and management of innovation systems This paper was discussed at the Stakeholders meeting at AGM2004.