This report, discussed during the stakeholder meeting at AGM2004 is the executive summary of the larger report prepared by the InterAcademy Council. African agriculture holds much promise and potential. This report addresses the question of how science and technology can be mobilized to make that promise come true. Improving agricultural productivity and food security in Africa will involve numerous challenges. The Study Panel recommends responses to these challenges are described under five strategic themes: - Science and technology options that can make a difference, - Building impact-oriented research, knowledge and development institutions, - Creating and retaining a new generation of agricultural scientists, - Markets and policies to make the poor income and food secure, and - Engaging science and technology for the benefit of African agriculture in the near term. The larger report is available on the InterAcamedy Council's web site.